Netiquette & Other Tech Info

Sending Attachments
Computer/Internet Terminology
Rotary Email Netiquette


Address Books

Hard Drive Space

Urban Legends/Hoaxes

Virus Tips

Net Quiz

Country Domain Names

Tech Humor

Protect your Address Book:

Help ensure you don't send out a virus through your emails:

When/if a worm virus gets into your computer it heads straight for your e-mail address book and sends itself to everyone in there, thus infecting all your friends and business colleagues. The following won't keep the virus from getting into your computer, but it will stop it from using your address book to spread further, and it will alert you to the fact that the worm has gotten into your system.

What to do: open your address book and click on "new contact" just as you would do if you were adding a new friend to your list of e-mail addresses. In the window where you would type your friend's first name, type in !000 (that's an exclamation mark followed by 3 zeros). In the window below where it prompts you to enter the new e-mail address, type in WormAlert. Then complete everything by clicking add, enter, ok, etc.

Here's why it works: the "name" !000 will be placed at the top of your address book as entry #1. This will be where the worm will start in an effort to send itself to all your friends. But when it tries to send itself to !000, it will be undeliverable because of the phony e-mail address you entered (WormAlert). If the first attempt fails (which it will because of the phony address), the worm goes no further and your friends will not be infected. Here's the second great advantage of this method: if an e-mail cannot be delivered,you will be notified of this in your Inbox almost immediately. Hence, if you ever get an e-mail telling you that an e-mail addressed to WormAlert could not be delivered,you know right away that you have the worm virus in your system. You can then take steps to get rid of it.


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Instructions for sending an attached file via e-mail

1st - Create a folder on your desktop by doing the following:
a.) if you have Windows operating system, Right click on an open space on your desktop - (which is what you see when you first boot up or turn on your computer);
b.) right or left click on New;
c.) right or left click on Folder (a new yellow folder will now appear on your desktop called New Folder);
d.) rename that folder with whatever name you will remember for that client or process, etc.

2nd - Now
a.) find the file you created (which you would ordinarily fax or snail mail to whomever);
b.) open the file;
c.) now click on Save As (leaving the file name the same as you had it);
d.) when you do this, you should see the File Name and the File Type and up to the top the words Save In;
e.) click on that little black down arrow and scroll until you see the word Desktop;
f.) click on Desktop;
g.) Scroll until you find the file folder you created in the 1st step above;
h.) Double click on that folder so it opens up;
i.) now click Save or Okay (whichever command it asks for)

3rd - Now open up your email and
a.) bring up a new message as though you were going to send an email to someone;
b.) you will see either a paper clip or the word Attach or Attachment - click on that;
c.) it now will open up where you should see your hard drive and the little black arrow;
d.) you now need to get to the desktop here -- if you're in Windows, you'll see the word Desktop Folder -- if you don't see that, find your C drive, click on Windows folder, and then click on Desktop folder.

4th - Now
a.) find the folder you saved in the 1st step;
b.) double click on that folder;
c.) find the file you saved in the 2nd step;
d.) click on that once so it's highlighted as the file name, and either a first or second click will place the name of that file into a line either on the top or the bottom of your email.

5th - Now,
a.) address your email to whomever you want to send this attached file to;
b.) cc yourself so you see when it comes back through that you did indeed send the attachment;
c.) put a subject heading in;
d.) put a brief note in the body of the email, to the effect of "attached is a file on -----";
e.) Click Send. That's it!

© 1999 Marlene B. Brown

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Virus Detection and Prevention Tips:

1.Do not open any files attached to an email from an unknown, suspicious or untrustworthy source.

2.Do not open any files attached to an email unless you know what it is, even if it appears to come from a dear friend or someone you know. Some viruses can replicate themselves and spread through email. Better be safe than sorry and confirm that they really sent it.

3.Do not open any files attached to an email if the subject line is
questionable or unexpected. If the need to do so is there always save the file to your hard drive before doing so.

4.Delete chain emails and junk email. Do not forward or reply to any to them. These types of email are considered spam, which is unsolicited, intrusive mail that clogs up the network.

5.Do not download any files from strangers.

6.Exercise caution when downloading files from the Internet. Ensure that the source is a legitimate and reputable one. Verify that an anti-virus program checks the files on the download site. If you're uncertain, don't download the file at all or download the file to a floppy and test it with your own anti-virus software.

7.Update your anti-virus software regularly. Over 500 viruses are discovered each month, so you'll want to be protected. These updates should be at the least the products virus signature files. You may also need to update the product's scanning engine as well.

8.Back up your files on a regular basis. If a virus destroys your files, at least you can replace them with your back-up copy. You should store your backup copy in a separate location from your work files, one that is preferably not on your computer.

9.When in doubt, always err on the side of caution and do not open, download, or execute any files or email attachments. Not executing is the more important of these caveats. Check with your product vendors for updates which include those for your operating system web browser, and email. One example is the Microsoft security site.

10.If you are in doubt about any potential virus related situation you find yourself in, report a virus. or

Remember, while advice from those of us who stay in the know is useful, you are ultimately responsible for making certain your anti-virus software signature files are current and make sure your system is clean. Note that messages with certain arrangements of keywords that include "joke" or "funny" in the subject heading are often flagged for this action. This is due to a number of known computer viruses with these subject headings.

Again, a reminder to have an anti-virus program on your hard drive, update it monthly, and never open executable files from people you don't know. It is NEVER a good idea to automatically open and run an email attachment unless you are sure of the source and purpose of the attachment.


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What about those e-mail messages that come through either offering what appears to be great freebies or contests, or help for a needy child? Are they credible and should we forward them as requested, even when the person sending says "I checked it out and it's true"? The answer to these questions is usually "No".

Let me try to clarify them. Many of us have received messages promising one or more of the following: new PC's from IBM, a free vacation from Disney, new software from Microsoft, $1000 cash from Bill Gates. Or requests for business cards to be sent to a little boy in England who's supposedly dying of cancer, or the American Cancer Society donating three cents per e-mail recipient. Or perhaps you've received that email notice warning you to watch out for kidney harvesting in New Orleans, or the suggestion to pass on the Neiman Marcus cookie recipe.

These are more than mere annoyances and harmless pranks, designed to tug at someone's back account or heart strings with their requests to "send to as many people as possible!", or "Pass this on to anyone you have an e-mail address for", or "It is real and not a joke!"

Referred to in the online world as Urban Legends, they have been making the e-mail rounds for several months now. They are experiments and jokes designed to clog the e-mail systems, and contribute to e-mail spamming.

Hoaxes as Harmless Pranks?

Are Virus Hoaxes Just Harmless Pranks? There are a lot of viruses out there. And then there are some viruses that aren't really out there at all. Hoax virus warning messages are more than mere annoyances.

After repeatedly becoming alarmed, only to learn that there was no real virus, computer users may get into the habit of ignoring all virus warning messages, leaving them especially vulnerable to the next real, and truly destructive, virus.

Don't let your guard down! Remember: Never open an e-mail attachment unless you know what it is--even if it comes from someone you know and trust.

Here are some guidelines to follow : Always remain vigilant * Never open a suspicious attachment * Use a VirusScan program such as Symantec's or McAfee's to check for viruses.

Whenever you get an email telling you about a virus, check the US Department of Energy's Computer Incident Advisory Capability home page to confirm whether or not your suspected 'virus' is a hoax.

Again, a reminder to back up your hard drive on a regular basis, have a virus scanning program on your computer, and update the newest versions of that on a weekly, or at least monthly, basis. Further information about viruses and anti-virus software is available at these two sites: Symantec and McAfee


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Content of Email:
We are here to enjoy each others fellowship and promote the Object of Rotary
The development of acquaintance is an opportunity for service.
High ethical standards in business and professions; the recognition of the worthiness of all useful occupations, and the dignifying of each Rotarian's occupation as an opportunity to serve society.
The application of the ideal of service in each Rotarian's personal, business, and community life.
The advancement of international understanding, goodwill, and peace through a world fellowship of business and professional persons united in the ideal of service.

Apply the Rotary Four Way Test
Is it the truth?
Is it fair to all concerned?
Will it build goodwill and better friendships?
Will it be beneficial to all concerned?

Consider the audience - thousands of Rotarians from around the world with different native languages, cultures, religions, and customs. Many of these Rotarians are using their second or third languages.
Differences in expression and interpretation are inevitable. Respect the rights of others to hold different opinions Be tolerant, understanding, and polite as if meeting face to face at Rotary It is fine to express a different view as your own, but do it without personally attacking those with different views.
If an email offends you or makes you uncomfortable, it may simply be due to the limitations of text-only email. During face to face communication, often over 50% of the message is through body language, facial expression, and tone as opposed to just the words spoken. You may want to send the originator of the message a private email expressing your interpretation and ask for further clarification of their intended message. If a posting makes one angry, it is often better to wait for a day before replying. Remember, one can't unsay something one has uttered too hastily.

Follow the Ten Commandments of Email and the The Core Rules of Netiquette.

ListServe Netiquette:
When replying to messages on a listserve: Place your message at the top rather than at the end.
Don't send "Me too" and "I agree" confirmation messages which don't really add to the discussion. If a vote is required, everyone will be notified.
Remove non pertinent information that everyone has already seen repeatedly.

Ten Commandments of Email:
Include a clear and specific subject line.
Edit any quoted text down to the minimum.
Do not curse, flame, spam, or SHOUT
Do not send in HTML.
Do not send attachments to listservers or newsgroups.
Do not forward any chain letter.
Sign with your name and email address.
Read your message before sending it.
Think about how the recipient might react to your message.
Do not send a message that you would find offensive to receive.

Subject of Email - To assist everyone in deleting unwanted email and in finding email they have saved, use the following subject heading prefixes followed by specific subject information:
ROTARY - Email of general interest to Rotarians. - Example - Rotary : Rotary International Newsbasket #NNN
BANTER - Light-hearted chatting for entertainment only - Example - Banter : Joke of the week
PERSONAL - Use as an introduction leading to private mailing on personal matters Example - Personal : Can someone help me with this problem in my Rotary Club.
Do not use a listserver or message board for ongoing personal conversations which could be done privately. Don't make everyone read and delete your private email unnecessarily.

Subject Headings -
When sending newsletters/memos, place the date first in your subject heading. Example: 7-1-03
Follow the date with text that describes the email - Example: CyberClubNewsletter

Email Attachments -
Be sure the attachment you are sending does not contain a virus.
The most common method of contracting a computer virus is by executing an unknown program received via email attachment or disk.
Emails without attachments do not normally pose a virus threat.
Be sure the attachment you are sending does not violate a copyright.
Be sure the attachment you are sending can be successfully received and used by the person you are planning to send it to.
Verify that the receiver's email provider handles attachments.
Generally it is not a good idea to send attachments to listserver or newsgroup addresses. They often reject them.
Verify that the receiver has the necessary software to be able to use it.
If the attachment is large, verify that the receiver has the disk space and is willing to wait for the file download required to receive the attachment.


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Question - The hard drive, on both my computer at the office, and the one at home, seems to be losing hard drive space. How can I clean out space without losing valuable information needed?

Answer - Every other day, do the following: 1.) Click on Start, Windows Explorer, then Windows. Scroll down to and then open Temporary Internet Files - You will see four cache folders there. Highlight all the images, etc. in there,from the top to the bottom, holding down the Shift and Control key at the same time, then right click, and delete. 2.) Then scroll back up to Program Files (still under Windows Explorer), click on this to open, click on Netscape, then Users, then your name, then cache. You will again find a whole bunch of files accumulated in here. Do the same highlight all, right click, delete. If they can't be deleted for some reason, it will tell you. Then just go back and redo, leaving that file alone.

3.) Go back and click on the  Start button on the Win95 shell, click on Find, click on Files or Folders - a box called Find All Files will open up for you - should have Look in (C:) drive already entered. Type *.tmp in the Named field, and hit enter or the button Find Now. If you have any temporary files stored on the hard drive, they will show up. You now can repeat the process of highlighting and deleting. We never delete anything that has that day's date on, just as a precaution. You can also do a search of other cache in this same method as above here for *.tmp, by simply typing in *.iw.

Some days you'll find none, other days you'll find oodles!  These are graphics, htm files, etc. that wind up on our hard drives when we browse the Net, or our machine crashes and we have to reboot. 4.) Now go to Recycle Bin (should be on your shell), right click, and double click on Empty Recycle Bin. Look at how much memory you have left on the hard drive before you do this, and after, and you'll be amazed! In Windows Explorer (Start, right mouse click, Explore) use F3 or CTRL+F to search out all files with .tmp extension by inserting *.tmp in the location box. Delete all those tmp files except for those with today’s date.

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Basic Computer Terminology

Hardware The physical components of the computer system.
Software The programs or instructions that tell the computer what to do.
CPU The brain of the computer or central processing unit.
ROM The permanent memory that is built in your computer. This is read only.
RAM The computer's working memory, sometimes called random-accessed memory.
Megabyte Approximately a million bytes.
Gigabyte Approximately a billion bytes (or 1,000 megabytes).
Input Device The hardware that is used to pass information into the computer.
Output Device The hardware that receives and dislplays information coming from the computer.
Modem The device that allows your computer to talk to other computers over a telephone line.
Monitor A video or computer display device.
Laser Printer A printer that uses both laser and photographic technology to produce high quality output.
Printer The hardware that provides printed output from the computer.
Hard Copy A printed copy of computer output.
Compact Disc A disc on which a laser has digitally recorded information such as audio, video, or computer data.
Hard Disk A fixed, large-capacity magnetic storage medium for computer data.
Floppy Disk A portable magnetic storage medium for computer data that allows users to randomly access information.
Graphical User Interface The use of graphical symbols instead of text commands to control common computer functions such as copying programs and disks.
Icon A small picture or symbol respresenting a computer hardware function or component.
Ink-jet Printer A type of printer that forms letters on the page by shooting tiny electrically charged droplets of ink.


Internet Terminology

Internet computers connected throughout the world
server manages and delivers info. for client computer
PSP Public Service Provider
WWW World Wide Web
Browser software that allows user to access & View web pages
Netscape popular graphical browser
homepage first web page viewed
URL Uniform Resource Locator
HTML HyperText Markup Language
HTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol
Hyperlinks highlighted words that take you to another page
Firewall security measures designed to protect network
host computer on the Internet
domain name of computer on the Internet
bookmark keeps a web address handy
Archie finds files on Net
Gopher finds info. by using menus
FTP File Transfer Protocol
Address identification code

Telecommunications Terminology

channel medium through which information travels
receiver person or device that recieves information
source person or device that sends information
telecommunications transmissin of info. from one location to another by electronic means
BBS bulletin board system for posting messages
online directly connected to the CPU
modem device used to connect computer to telephone line
baud the speed of a communications channel
email electronic mail
password way to limit access to computer info.
ATM automated teller machine for banking transactions
EFT electronic funds transfer
Boolean search criteria where two or more conditions must be true for successful search
keywords words using in programming that instruct the computer to perform a function
virus program designed to attach itself to other programs; it can damage data files and cause system failures
hacking persistent efforts to use a computer to gain illegal or unauthorized entry to another computer system
phonefraud illegal use of telephones or lines to avoid charges
satellite earth-orbiting man-made object off of which telecommunicatin signals and computer data are bounced
network system of linked computers and other devices that allows computers to share and exchange info.
SIG Special Interest Group--group of people with common interests who share info. about their interests on a BBS
SYSOP Systems Operator; manages BBS
piracy duplication & distribution of copyrighted software
vandalism damage & destroy computer records, information, or network

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Test your knowledge of the Internet

1.) Which of these computers were released in 1977?

a. Commodore PET

b. Apple II

c. Tandy Radio Shack's TRS-80

d. None of the above

e. All of the above

2. What year saw the debut of the Macintosh?

a. 1982

b. 1983

c. 1984

d. 1985

3. Who is generally considered the father of the computer?

a. Bill Gates

b. Charles Babbage

c. Albert Einstein

d. John Vincent Atanasoff

4. Who invented the mouse?

a. Steve Jobs

b. Steve Wozniak

c. Doug Englebart

d. Thomas Edison

5. What company invented the 3.5-inch floppy disk?

a. IBM

b. Motorola

c. Sony

d. Philips


6. In what year was MS-DOS released?

a. 1979

b. 1980

c. 1981

d. 1982


7. Who is Nolan Bushnell?

a. Inventor of the modem

b. Founder of Maxis

c. Founder of Compaq

d. Founder of Atari


8. What was the first computer with a graphical user (GUI) interface?

a. Radio Shack TRS-1000

b. Commodore 64

c. Apple Lisa

d. Apple II


9. Which of the following was introduced in 1985?

a. Laptop computers


c. Windows 85

d. PowerPC


10. When was the World Wide Web created?

a. 1987

b. 1988

c. 1989

d. 1990

Click here to send your answers, and we'll let you know how you did!

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Sense of Humor Viruses (read at your own risk!)

OBBIT VIRUS-Removes a vital part of your hard disk then re-attaches it. (But that part will never work again.)

OPRAH WINFREY VIRUS-Your 200MB hard drive suddenly shrinks to 80MB, and then slowly expands back to 200MB.

AT&T VIRUS-Every three minutes it tells you what great service you are getting.

MCI VIRUS-Every three minutes it reminds you that you're paying too much for the AT&T virus.

PAUL REVERE VIRUS-This revolutionary virus does not horse around. It warns you of impending hard disk attack -- once if by LAN, twice if by C/:

POLITICALLY CORRECT VIRUS-Never calls itself a "virus," but instead refers to itself as an "electronic microorganism."

PBS Virus - Your computer stops every few minutes to ask for money.

RIGHT TO LIFE VIRUS-Won't allow you to delete a file, regardless of how old it is. If you attempt to erase a file, it requires you to first see a counselor about possible alternatives.

ROSS PEROT VIRUS-Activates every component in your system, just before the whole damn thing quits.

MARIO CUOMO VIRUS-It would be a great virus, but it refuses to run.

TED TURNER VIRUS-Colorizes your monochrome monitor.

ARNOLD SCHWARZENEGGER VIRUS-Terminates and stays resident. It'll be back.

DAN QUAYLE VIRUS #1-Prevents your system from spawning any child process without joining into a binary network.

DAN QUAYLE VIRUS #2-Their is sumthing rong wit your komputer, ewe jsut cant figyour out watt!

GOVERNMENT ECONOMIST VIRUS-Nothing works, but all your diagnostic software says everything is fine.

NEW WORLD ORDER VIRUS-Probably harmless, but it makes a lot of people really mad just thinking about it.

FEDERAL BUREAUCRAT VIRUS-Divides your hard disk into hundreds of little units, each of which does practically nothing, but all of which claim to be the most important part of your computer.

GALLUP VIRUS-Sixty percent of the PCs infected will lose 38 percent of their data 14 percent of the time (plus or minus a 3.5 percent margin or error).

TEXAS VIRUS-Makes sure that it's bigger than any other file.

ADAM AND EVE VIRUS-Takes a couple of bytes out of your Apple computer.

CONGRESSIONAL VIRUS #1-The computer locks up, screens splits erratically with a message appearing on each half blaming the other side for the problem.

CONGRESSIONAL VIRUS #2-Runs every program on the hard drive simultaneously but doesn't allow the user to accomplish anything.

AIRLINE VIRUS-You're in Dallas, but your data is in Singapore.

FREUDIAN VIRUS-Your computer becomes obsessed with marrying its own motherboard.

PBS VIRUS-Your computer stops every few minutes to ask for money.

ELVIS VIRUS-Your computer gets fat, slow and lazy, then self-destructs -- only to resurface at shopping malls and service stations across rural America.

OLLIE NORTH VIRUS-Causes your printer to become a paper shredder.

SEARS VIRUS-Your data won't appear unless you buy new cables, power supply and a set of shocks.

JIMMY HOFFA VIRUS-Your programs can never be found again.

KEVORKIAN VIRUS-Helps your computer shut down as an act of mercy.

IMELDA MARCOS VIRUS-Sings you a song (slightly off key) on boot-up, then subtracts money from your Quicken account and spends it all on expensive shoes it purchases through Prodigy.

STAR TREK VIRUS-Invades your system in places where no virus has gone before.

HEALTH CARE VIRUS-Tests your system for a day, finds nothing wrong and sends you a bill. It starts by boldly stating, "Read my docs ... no new files!" on the screen. It proceeds to fill up all the free space on your hard drive with new files, then blames it on the Congressional Virus.

NEW YORK JETS VIRUS-Makes your 486/50 machine perform like a 286/AT.

LAPD VIRUS-It claims it feels threatened by the other files on your PC and erases them in "self-defense."

CHICAGO CUBS VIRUS-Your PC makes frequent mistakes and comes in last in the reviews, but you still love it.

ORAL ROBERTS VIRUS-Claims that if you don't send it a million dollars, its programmer will take it back.

O.J. VIRUS-It claims that it did not, could not and would not delete two of your files and vows to find the virus that did it.


 Voice Mail Options

Voice Mail Options From an Overworked Answering Machine

* If you are obsessive/compulsive, press one repeatedly.

* If you are codependent, ask someone to press 2 for you.

* If you have a multiple personality disorder, press 3, 4, 5, and 6.

* If you are schizophrenic, a little voice will tell you what number to press.

* If you are manic depressive, it doesn't matter what number you press, no one will ever return your call.

* If you have attention deficit disorder, we can't help you because you have already hung up.

Answer the following & keep track of how many yes answers you have:

* I may forget other things, but I've got my email address & web site memorized.

* I use the computer so much, my significant other threatens to ration me.

* Sometimes, I check my email before I brush my teeth in the morning.

* I not only use the little smiley-con's in my email, I put them on letters.

* I think Bill Gates is kind of cute, even though I'm embarrassed to admit it.

* I now have more friends in the 'virtual world' than I do in the 'real world'.

* I get an empty feeling when I turn off my modem.

* I laugh at people who have 9600-baud problems.

* When using my word processor, I find myself typing 'com' after every period.

* I occasionally introduce myself as 'so and so... at such and'


Click here to send your answers, and we'll let you know how you rank!

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Glossary of Internet Terms

Not quite clear on all that computer terminology?
Here's a glossary of information to help you become more techno-savvy.

Internet Terms

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

(Advanced Digital Network) -- Usually refers to a 56Kbps leased-line.


See: DSL

Anonymous FTP

See: FTP

A small Java program that can be embedded in an HTML page. Applets differ from full-fledged Java applications in that they are not allowed to access certain resources on the local computer, such as files and serial devices (modems, printers, etc.), and are prohibited from communicating with most other computers across a network. The current rule is that an applet can only make an Internet connection to the computer from which the applet was sent.

A tool (software) for finding files stored on anonymous FTP sites. You need to know the exact file name or a substring of it.

(Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) -- The precursor to the Internet. Developed in the late 60’s and early 70’s by the US Department of Defense as an experiment in wide-area-networking that would survive a nuclear war.

(American Standard Code for Information Interchange) -- This is the de facto world-wide standard for the code numbers used by computers to represent all the upper and lower-case Latin letters, numbers, punctuation, etc. There are 128 standard ASCII codes each of which can be represented by a 7 digit binary number: 0000000 through 1111111.

A high-speed line or series of connections that forms a major pathway within a network. The term is relative as a backbone in a small network will likely be much smaller than many non-backbone lines in a large network.

How much stuff you can send through a connection. Usually measured in bits-per-second. A full page of English text is about 16,000 bits. A fast modem can move about 15,000 bits in one second. Full-motion full-screen video would require roughly 10,000,000 bits-per-second, depending on compression.

In common usage the baud rate of a modem is how many bits it can send or receive per second. Technically, baud is the number of times per second that the carrier signal shifts value - for example a 1200 bit-per-second modem actually runs at 300 baud, but it moves 4 bits per baud (4 x 300 = 1200 bits per second).

(Bulletin Board System) -- A computerized meeting and announcement system that allows people to carry on discussions, upload and download files, and make announcements without the people being connected to the computer at the same time. There are many thousands (millions?) of BBS’s around the world, most are very small, running on a single IBM clone PC with 1 or 2 phone lines. Some are very large and the line between a BBS and a system like CompuServe gets crossed at some point, but it is not clearly drawn.

(BINary HEXadecimal) -- A method for converting non-text files (non-ASCII) into ASCII. This is needed because Internet e-mail can only handle ASCII.

(Binary DigIT) -- A single digit number in base-2, in other words, either a 1 or a zero. The smallest unit of computerized data. Bandwidth is usually measured in bits-per-second.

(Because It’s Time NETwork (or Because It’s There NETwork)) -- A network of educational sites separate from the Internet, but e-mail is freely exchanged between BITNET and the Internet. Listservs®, the most popular form of e-mail discussion groups, originated on BITNET. BITNET machines are usually mainframes running the VMS operating system, and the network is probably the only international network that is shrinking.

(Bits-Per-Second) -- A measurement of how fast data is moved from one place to another. A 28.8 modem can move 28,800 bits per second.

A Client program (software) that is used to look at various kinds of Internet resources.

(By The Way) -- A shorthand appended to a comment written in an online forum.

A set of Bits that represent a single character. Usually there are 8 Bits in a Byte, sometimes more, depending on how the measurement is being made.

Certificate Authority
An issuer of Security Certificates used in SSL connections.

(Common Gateway Interface) -- A set of rules that describe how a Web Server communicates with another piece of software on the same machine, and how the other piece of software (the “CGI program”) talks to the web server. Any piece of software can be a CGI program if it handles input and output according to the CGI standard.

Usually a CGI program is a small program that takes data from a web server and does something with it, like putting the content of a form into an e-mail message, or turning the data into a database query. You can often see that a CGI program is being used by seeing “cgi-bin” in a URL, but not always.

The most common name of a directory on a web server in which CGI programs are stored.
The “bin” part of “cgi-bin” is a shorthand version of “binary”, because once upon a time, most programs were refered to as “binaries”. In real life, most programs found in cgi-bin directories are text files -- scripts that are executed by binaries located elsewhere on the same machine.

A software program that is used to contact and obtain data from a Server software program on another computer, often across a great distance. Each Client program is designed to work with one or more specific kinds of Server programs, and each Server requires a specific kind of Client. A Web Browser is a specific kind of Client.

Most often used to refer to having a server that belongs to one person or group physically located on an Internet-connected network that belongs to another person or group. Usually this is done because the server owner wants their machine to be on a high-speed Internet connection and/or they do not want the security risks of having the server on thier own network.

The most common meaning of “Cookie” on the Internet refers to a piece of information sent by a Web Server to a Web Browser that the Browser software is expected to save and to send back to the Server whenever the browser makes additional requests from the Server.

Depending on the type of Cookie used, and the Browser’s settings, the Browser may accept or not accept the Cookie, and may save the Cookie for either a short time or a long time. Cookies might contain information such as login or registration information, online “shopping cart” information, user preferences, etc.

When a Server receives a request from a Browser that includes a Cookie, the Server is able to use the information stored in the Cookie. For example, the Server might customize what is sent back to the user, or keep a log of particular user’s requests.

Cookies are usually set to expire after a predetermined amount of time and are usually saved in memory until the Browser software is closed down, at which time they may be saved to disk if their “expire time” has not been reached. Cookies do not read your hard drive and send your life story to the CIA, but they can be used to gather more information about a user than would be possible without them.

Cyberpunk was originally a cultural sub-genre of science fiction taking place in a not-so-distant, dystopian, over-industrialized society. The term grew out of the work of William Gibson and Bruce Sterling and has evolved into a cultural label encompassing many different kinds of human, machine, and punk attitudes. It includes clothing and lifestyle choices as well.

Term originated by author William Gibson in his novel Neuromancer the word Cyberspace is currently used to describe the whole range of information resources available through computer networks.

The digital version of literati, it is a reference to a vague cloud of people seen to be knowledgeable, hip, or otherwise in-the-know in regards to the digital revolution.

(Digital Subscriber Line) -- A method for moving data over regular phone lines. A DSL circuit is much faster than a regular phone connection, and the wires coming into the subscriber’s premises are the same (copper) wires used for regular phone service. A DSL circuit must be configured to connect two specific locations, similar to a leased line.

A commonly discussed configuration of DSL allows downloads at speeds of up to 1.544 megabits (not megabytes) per second, and uploads at speeds of 128 kilobits per second. This arrangement is called ADSL: “Asymmetric” Digital Subscriber Line.

Another common configuration is symmetrical: 384 Kilobits per second in both directions.

In theory ADSL allows download speeds of up to 9 megabits per second and upload speeds of up to 640 kilobits per second.

DSL is now a popular alternative to Leased Lines and ISDN, being faster than ISDN and less costly than traditional Leased Lines.

Domain Name
The unique name that identifies an Internet site. Domain Names always have 2 or more parts, separated by dots. The part on the left is the most specific, and the part on the right is the most general. A given machine may have more than one Domain Name but a given Domain Name points to only one machine. For example, the following domain names can all refer to the same machine, but each domain name can refer to no more than one machine:

Usually, all of the machines on a given Network will have the same thing as the right-hand portion of their Domain Names ( in the examples above). It is also possible for a Domain Name to exist but not be connected to an actual machine. This is often done so that a group or business can have an Internet e-mail address without having to establish a real Internet site. In these cases, some real Internet machine must handle the mail on behalf of the listed Domain Name.

(Electronic Mail) -- Messages, usually text, sent from one person to another via computer. E-mail can also be sent automatically to a large number of addresses (Mailing List).

A very common method of networking computers in a LAN. Ethernet will handle about 10,000,000 bits-per-second and can be used with almost any kind of computer.

(Frequently Asked Questions) -- FAQs are documents that list and answer the most common questions on a particular subject. There are hundreds of FAQs on subjects as diverse as Pet Grooming and Cryptography. FAQs are usually written by people who have tired of answering the same question over and over.

(Fiber Distributed Data Interface) -- A standard for transmitting data on optical fiber cables at a rate of around 100,000,000 bits-per-second (10 times as fast as Ethernet, about twice as fast as T-3).

An Internet software tool for locating people on other Internet sites. Finger is also sometimes used to give access to non-personal information, but the most common use is to see if a person has an account at a particular Internet site. Many sites do not allow incoming Finger requests, but many do.

Fire Wall
A combination of hardware and software that separates a LAN into two or more parts for security purposes.

Originally, flame meant to carry forth in a passionate manner in the spirit of honorable debate. Flames most often involved the use of flowery language and flaming well was an art form. More recently flame has come to refer to any kind of derogatory comment no matter how witless or crude.

Flame War
When an online discussion degenerates into a series of personal attacks against the debators, rather than discussion of their positions. A heated exchange.

(File Transfer Protocol) -- A very common method of moving files between two Internet sites. FTP is a special way to login to another Internet site for the purposes of retrieving and/or sending files. There are many Internet sites that have established publicly accessible repositories of material that can be obtained using FTP, by logging in using the account name anonymous, thus these sites are called anonymous ftp servers.

The technical meaning is a hardware or software set-up that translates between two dissimilar protocols, for example Prodigy has a gateway that translates between its internal, proprietary e-mail format and Internet e-mail format. Another, sloppier meaning of gateway is to describe any mechanism for providing access to another system, e.g. AOL might be called a gateway to the Internet.

(Graphic Interchange Format) -- A common format for image files, especially suitable for images containing large areas of the same color. GIF format files of simple images are often smaller than the same file would be if stored in JPEG format, but GIF format does not store photographic images as well as JPEG.

1000 or 1024 Megabytes, depending on who is measuring.

A widely successful method of making menus of material available over the Internet. Gopher is a Client and Server style program, which requires that the user have a Gopher Client program. Although Gopher spread rapidly across the globe in only a couple of years, it has been largely supplanted by Hypertext, also known as WWW (World Wide Web). There are still thousands of Gopher Servers on the Internet and we can expect they will remain for a while.

As used in reference to the World Wide Web, “hit” means a single request from a web browser for a single item from a web server; thus in order for a web browser to display a page that contains 3 graphics, 4 “hits” would occur at the server: 1 for the HTML page, and one for each of the 3 graphics.

“hits” are often used as a very rough measure of load on a server, e.g. “Our server has been getting 300,000 hits per month.” Because each “hit” can represent anything from a request for a tiny document (or even a request for a missing document) all the way to a request that requires some significant extra processing (such as a complex search request), the actual load on a machine from 1 hit is almost impossible to define.

Home Page (or Homepage)
Several meanings. Originally, the web page that your browser is set to use when it starts up. The more common meaning refers to the main web page for a business, organization, person or simply the main page out of a collection of web pages, e.g. “Check out so-and-so’s new Home Page.”

Another sloppier use of the term refers to practically any web page as a “homepage,” e.g. “That web site has 65 homepages and none of them are interesting.”

Host Any computer on a network that is a repository for services available to other computers on the network. It is quite common to have one host machine provide several services, such as WWW and USENET.

(HyperText Markup Language) -- The coding language used to create Hypertext documents for use on the World Wide Web. HTML looks a lot like old-fashioned typesetting code, where you surround a block of text with codes that indicate how it should appear, additionally, in HTML you can specify that a block of text, or a word, is linked to another file on the Internet. HTML files are meant to be viewed using a World Wide Web Client Program, such as Netscape or Mosaic.

(HyperText Transfer Protocol) -- The protocol for moving hypertext files across the Internet. Requires a HTTP client program on one end, and an HTTP server program on the other end. HTTP is the most important protocol used in the World Wide Web (WWW).

Generally, any text that contains links to other documents - words or phrases in the document that can be chosen by a reader and which cause another document to be retrieved and displayed.

(In My Humble Opinion) -- A shorthand appended to a comment written in an online forum, IMHO indicates that the writer is aware that they are expressing a debatable view, probably on a subject already under discussion. One of may such shorthands in common use online, especially in discussion forums.

(Upper case I) The vast collection of inter-connected networks that all use the TCP/IP protocols and that evolved from the ARPANET of the late 60’s and early 70’s. The Internet now (July 1995) connects roughly 60,000 independent networks into a vast global internet.

(Lower case i) Any time you connect 2 or more networks together, you have an internet - as in inter-national or inter-state.

A private network inside a company or organization that uses the same kinds of software that you would find on the public Internet, but that is only for internal use.

As the Internet has become more popular many of the tools used on the Internet are being used in private networks, for example, many companies have web servers that are available only to employees. Note that an Intranet may not actually be an internet -- it may simply be a network.

IP Number
(Internet Protocol Number) -- Sometimes called a dotted quad. A unique number consisting of 4 parts separated by dots, e.g.

Every machine that is on the Internet has a unique IP number - if a machine does not have an IP number, it is not really on the Internet. Most machines also have one or more Domain Names that are easier for people to remember.

(Internet Relay Chat) -- Basically a huge multi-user live chat facility. There are a number of major IRC servers around the world which are linked to each other. Anyone can create a channel and anything that anyone types in a given channel is seen by all others in the channel. Private channels can (and are) created for multi-person conference calls.

(Integrated Services Digital Network) -- Basically a way to move more data over existing regular phone lines. ISDN is rapidly becoming available to much of the USA and in most markets it is priced very comparably to standard analog phone circuits. It can provide speeds of roughly 128,000 bits-per-second over regular phone lines. In practice, most people will be limited to 56,000 or 64,000 bits-per-second.

(Internet Service Provider) -- An institution that provides access to the Internet in some form, usually for money.

Java is a network-oriented programming language invented by Sun Microsystems that is specifically designed for writing programs that can be safely downloaded to your computer through the Internet and immediately run without fear of viruses or other harm to your computer or files. Using small Java programs (called "Applets"), Web pages can include functions such as animations, calculators, and other fancy tricks.

We can expect to see a huge variety of features added to the Web using Java, since you can write a Java program to do almost anything a regular computer program can do, and then include that Java program in a Web page.

(Java Development Kit) -- A software development package from Sun Microsystems that implements the basic set of tools needed to write, test and debug Java applications and applets

(Joint Photographic Experts Group) -- JPEG is most commonly mentioned as a format for image files. JPEG format is preferred to the GIF format for photographic images as opposed to line art or simple logo art.

A thousand bytes. Actually, usually 1024 (2^10) bytes.

(Local Area Network) -- A computer network limited to the immediate area, usually the same building or floor of a building.

Leased Line
Refers to a phone line that is rented for exclusive 24-hour, 7 -days-a-week use from your location to another location. The highest speed data connections require a leased line.

The most common kind of maillist, "Listserv" is a registered trademark of L-Soft international, Inc. Listservs originated on BITNET but they are now common on the Internet.

Noun or a verb. Noun: The account name used to gain access to a computer system. Not a secret (contrast with Password).
Verb: The act of entering into a computer system, e.g. Login to the WELL and then go to the GBN conference.

(or Mailing List) A (usually automated) system that allows people to send e-mail to one address, whereupon their message is copied and sent to all of the other subscribers to the maillist. In this way, people who have many different kinds of e-mail access can participate in discussions together.

A million bytes. Actually, technically, 1024 kilobytes.

(Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) -- The standard for attaching non-text files to standard Internet mail messages. Non-text files include graphics, spreadsheets, formatted word-processor documents, sound files, etc.

An email program is said to be MIME Compliant if it can both send and receive files using the MIME standard. When non-text files are sent using the MIME standard they are converted (encoded) into text - although the resulting text is not really readable. Generally speaking the MIME standard is a way of specifying both the type of file being sent (e.g. a Quicktime™ video file), and the method that should be used to turn it back into its original form.

Besides email software, the MIME standard is also universally used by Web Servers to identify the files they are sending to Web Clients, in this way new file formats can be accommodated simply by updating the Browsers’ list of pairs of MIME-Types and appropriate software for handling each type.

Generally speaking, “to mirror” is to maintain an exact copy of something. Probably the most common use of the term on the Internet refers to “mirror sites” which are web sites, or FTP sites that maintain exact copies of material originated at another location, usually in order to provide more widespread access to the resource.

Another common use of the term “mirror” refers to an arrangement where information is written to more than one hard disk simultaneously, so that if one disk fails, the computer keeps on working without losing anything.

(MOdulator, DEModulator) -- A device that you connect to your computer and to a phone line, that allows the computer to talk to other computers through the phone system. Basically, modems do for computers what a telephone does for humans.

(Mud, Object Oriented) -- One of several kinds of multi-user role-playing environments, so far only text-based.

The first WWW browser that was available for the Macintosh, Windows, and UNIX all with the same interface. Mosaic really started the popularity of the Web. The source-code to Mosaic has been licensed by several companies and there are several other pieces of software as good or better than Mosaic, most notably, Netscape.

(Multi-User Dungeon or Dimension) -- A (usually text-based) multi-user simulation environment. Some are purely for fun and flirting, others are used for serious software development, or education purposes and all that lies in between. A significant feature of most MUDs is that users can create things that stay after they leave and which other users can interact with in their absence, thus allowing a world to be built gradually and collectively.

(Multi-User Simulated Environment) -- One kind of MUD - usually with little or no violence.

The etiquette on the Internet.

Derived from the term citizen, referring to a citizen of the Internet, or someone who uses networked resources. The term connotes civic responsibility and participation.

A WWW Browser and the name of a company. The Netscape (tm) browser was originally based on the Mosaic program developed at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA). Netscape has grown in features rapidly and is widely recognized as the best and most popular web browser. Netscape corporation also produces web server software.

Netscape provided major improvements in speed and interface over other browsers, and has also engendered debate by creating new elements for the HTML language used by Web pages -- but the Netscape extensions to HTML are not universally supported. The main author of Netscape, Mark Andreessen, was hired away from the NCSA by Jim Clark, and they founded a company called Mosaic Communications and soon changed the name to Netscape Communications Corporation.

Any time you connect 2 or more computers together so that they can share resources, you have a computer network. Connect 2 or more networks together and you have an internet.

The name for discussion groups on USENET.

(Networked Information Center) -- Generally, any office that handles information for a network. The most famous of these on the Internet is the InterNIC, which is where new domain names are registered.
Another definition: NIC also refers to Network Interface Card which plugs into a computer and adapts the network interface to the appropriate standard. ISA, PCI, and PCMCIA cards are all examples of NICs.

(Network News Transport Protocol) -- The protocol used by client and server software to carry USENET postings back and forth over a TCP/IP network. If you are using any of the more common software such as Netscape, Nuntius, Internet Explorer, etc. to participate in newsgroups then you are benefiting from an NNTP connection.

Any single computer connected to a network.

Packet Switching
The method used to move data around on the Internet. In packet switching, all the data coming out of a machine is broken up into chunks, each chunk has the address of where it came from and where it is going. This enables chunks of data from many different sources to co-mingle on the same lines, and be sorted and directed to different routes by special machines along the way. This way many people can use the same lines at the same time.

A code used to gain access to a locked system. Good passwords contain letters and non-letters and are not simple combinations such as virtue7. A good password might be:


A (usually small) piece of software that adds features to a larger piece of software. Common examples are plug-ins for the Netscape® browser and web server. Adobe Photoshop® also uses plug-ins.

The idea behind plug-in’s is that a small piece of software is loaded into memory by the larger program, adding a new feature, and that users need only install the few plug-ins that they need, out of a much larger pool of possibilities. Plug-ins are usually created by people other than the publishers of the software the plug-in works with.

(Point of Presence, also Post Office Protocol) -- Two commonly used meanings: Point of Presence and Post Office Protocol. A Point of Presence usually means a city or location where a network can be connected to, often with dial up phone lines. So if an Internet company says they will soon have a POP in Belgrade, it means that they will soon have a local phone number in Belgrade and/or a place where leased lines can connect to their network. A second meaning, Post Office Protocol refers to the way e-mail software such as Eudora gets mail from a mail server. When you obtain a SLIP, PPP, or shell account you almost always get a POP account with it, and it is this POP account that you tell your e-mail software to use to get your mail.

3 meanings. First and most generally, a place where information goes into or out of a computer, or both. E.g. the serial port on a personal computer is where a modem would be connected.

On the Internet port often refers to a number that is part of a URL, appearing after a colon (:) right after the domain name. Every service on an Internet server listens on a particular port number on that server. Most services have standard port numbers, e.g. Web servers normally listen on port 80. Services can also listen on non-standard ports, in which case the port number must be specified in a URL when accessing the server, so you might see a URL of the form:


shows a gopher server running on a non-standard port (the standard gopher port is 70).
Finally, port also refers to translating a piece of software to bring it from one type of computer system to another, e.g. to translate a Windows program so that is will run on a Macintosh.

Usually used as a marketing term to described a Web site that is or is intended to be the first place people see when using the Web. Typically a "Portal site" has a catalog of web sites, a search engine, or both. A Portal site may also offer email and other service to entice people to use that site as their main "point of entry" (hence "portal") to the Web.

A single message entered into a network communications system.

i.e. A single message posted to a newsgroup or message board.

(Point to Point Protocol) -- Most well known as a protocol that allows a computer to use a regular telephone line and a modem to make TCP/IP connections and thus be really and truly on the Internet.

(Public Switched Telephone Network) -- The regular old-fashioned telephone system.

(Request For Comments) -- The name of the result and the process for creating a standard on the Internet. New standards are proposed and published on line, as a Request For Comments. The Internet Engineering Task Force is a consensus-building body that facilitates discussion, and eventually a new standard is established, but the reference number/name for the standard retains the acronym RFC, e.g. the official standard for e-mail is RFC 822.

A special-purpose computer (or software package) that handles the connection between 2 or more networks. Routers spend all their time looking at the destination addresses of the packets passing through them and deciding which route to send them on.

Security Certificate
A chunk of information (often stored as a text file) that is used by the SSL protocol to establish a secure connection.

Security Certificates contain information about who it belongs to, who it was issued by, a unique serial number or other unique identification, valid dates, and an encrypted “fingerprint” that can be used to verify the contents of the certificate.

In order for an SSL connection to be created both sides must have a valid Security Certificate.

A computer, or a software package, that provides a specific kind of service to client software running on other computers. The term can refer to a particular piece of software, such as a WWW server, or to the machine on which the software is running, e.g.Our mail server is down today, that’s why e-mail isn’t getting out. A single server machine could have several different server software packages running on it, thus providing many different servers to clients on the network.

Serial Line Internet Protocol) -- A standard for using a regular telephone line (a serial line) and a modem to connect a computer as a real Internet site. SLIP is gradually being replaced by PPP.

(Switched Multimegabit Data Service) -- A new standard for very high-speed data transfer.

(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) -- The main protocol used to send electronic mail on the Internet. SMTP consists of a set of rules for how a program sending mail and a program receiving mail should interact.

Almost all Internet email is sent and received by clients and servers using SMTP, thus if one wanted to set up an email server on the Internet one would look for email server software that supports SMTP.

(Simple Network Management Protocol) -- A set of standards for communication with devices connected to a TCP/IP network. Examples of these devices include routers, hubs, and switches.

A device is said to be “SNMP compatible” if it can be monitored and/or controlled using SNMP messages. SNMP messages are known as “PDU’s” - Protocol Data Units. Devices that are SNMP compatible contain SNMP “agent” software to receive, send, and act upon SNMP messages.

Software for managing devices via SNMP are available for every kind of commonly used computer and are often bundled along with the device they are designed to manage. Some SNMP software is designed to handle a wide variety of devices.

Spam (or Spamming)
An inappropriate attempt to use a mailing list, or USENET or other networked communications facility as if it was a broadcast medium (which it is not) by sending the same message to a large number of people who didn’t ask for it. The term probably comes from a famous Monty Python skit which featured the word spam repeated over and over. The term may also have come from someone’s low opinion of the food product with the same name, which is generally perceived as a generic content-free waste of resources. (Spam is a registered trademark of Hormel Corporation, for its processed meat product.)

i.e.. John spammed 50 USENET groups by posting the same message to each.

(Structured Query Language) -- A specialized programming language for sending queries to databases. Most industrial-strength and many smaller database applications can be addressed using SQL. Each specific application will have its own version of SQL implementing features unique to that application, but all SQL-capable databases support a common subset of SQL.

(Secure Sockets Layer) -- A protocol designed by Netscape Communications to enable encrypted, authenticated communications across the Internet.

SSL used mostly (but not exclusively) in communications between web browsers and web servers. URL’s that begin with “https” indicate that an SSL connection will be used. SSL provides 3 important things: Privacy, Authentication, and Message Integrity.

In an SSL connection each side of the connection must have a Security Certificate, which each side’s software sends to the other. Each side then encrypts what it sends using information from both its own and the other side’s Certificate, ensuring that only the intended recipient can de-crypt it, and that the other side can be sure the data came from the place it claims to have come from, and that the message has not been tampered with.

(System Operator) -- Anyone responsible for the physical operations of a computer system or network resource. A System Administrator decides how often backups and maintenance should be performed and the System Operator performs those tasks.

A leased-line connection capable of carrying data at 1,544,000 bits-per-second. At maximum theoretical capacity, a T-1 line could move a megabyte in less than 10 seconds. That is still not fast enough for full-screen, full-motion video, for which you need at least 10,000,000 bits-per-second. T-1 is the fastest speed commonly used to connect networks to the Internet.

A leased-line connection capable of carrying data at 44,736,000 bits-per-second. This is more than enough to do full-screen, full-motion video.

(Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) -- This is the suite of protocols that defines the Internet. Originally designed for the UNIX operating system, TCP/IP software is now available for every major kind of computer operating system. To be truly on the Internet, your computer must have TCP/IP software.

The command and program used to login from one Internet site to another. The telnet command/program gets you to the login: prompt of another host.

1000 gigabytes.

A device that allows you to send commands to a computer somewhere else. At a minimum, this usually means a keyboard and a display screen and some simple circuitry. Usually you will use terminal software in a personal computer - the software pretends to be (emulates) a physical terminal and allows you to type commands to a computer somewhere else.

Terminal Server
A special purpose computer that has places to plug in many modems on one side, and a connection to a LAN or host machine on the other side. Thus the terminal server does the work of answering the calls and passes the connections on to the appropriate node. Most terminal servers can provide PPP or SLIP services if connected to the Internet.

(User Datagram Protocol) -- One of the protocols for data transfer that is part of the TCP/IP suite of protocols. UDP is a “stateless” protocol in that UDP makes no provision for acknowledgement of packets received.

A computer operating system (the basic software running on a computer, underneath things like word processors and spreadsheets). UNIX is designed to be used by many people at the same time (it is multi-user) and has TCP/IP built-in. It is the most common operating system for servers on the Internet.

(Uniform Resource Locator) -- The standard way to give the address of any resource on the Internet that is part of the World Wide Web (WWW). A URL looks like this:
or telnet://
or news:new.newusers.questions, etc.

The most common way to use a URL is to enter into a WWW browser program, such as Netscape, or Lynx.

A world-wide system of discussion groups, with comments passed among hundreds of thousands of machines. Not all USENET machines are on the Internet, maybe half. USENET is completely decentralized, with over 10,000 discussion areas, called newsgroups.

(Unix to Unix Encoding) -- A method for converting files from Binary to ASCII (text) so that they can be sent across the Internet via e-mail.

(Very Easy Rodent Oriented Net-wide Index to Computerized Archives) -- Developed at the University of Nevada, Veronica is a constantly updated database of the names of almost every menu item on thousands of gopher servers. The Veronica database can be searched from most major gopher menus.

(Virtual Private Network) -- Usually refers to a network in which some of the parts are connected using the public Internet, but the data sent across the Internet is encrypted, so the entire network is "virtually" private.

A typical example would be a company network where there are two offices in different cities. Using the Internet the two offices mereg their networks into one network, but encrypt traffic that uses the Internet link.

(Wide Area Information Servers) -- A commercial software package that allows the indexing of huge quantities of information, and then making those indices searchable across networks such as the Internet. A prominent feature of WAIS is that the search results are ranked (scored) according to how relevant the hits are, and that subsequent searches can find more stuff like that last batch and thus refine the search process.

(Wide Area Network) -- Any internet or network that covers an area larger than a single building or campus.


See: WWW

(World Wide Web) -- Frequently used (incorrectly) when referring to "The Internet", WWW has two major meanings - First, loosely used: the whole constellation of resources that can be accessed using Gopher, FTP, HTTP, telnet, USENET, WAIS and some other tools. Second, the universe of hypertext servers (HTTP servers) which are the servers that allow text, graphics, sound files, etc. to be mixed together.

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Country Domain Names

    Currently, there are over 200 recognized Country Domain names.  
Two-letter abbreviations that represent the country names are used
in addresses seen on the Internet.
.ad Andorra .ae United Arab Emirates .ag Antigua and Barbuda .ai Anguilla .al Albania .am Armenia .ar Argentina .at Austria .au Australia .aw Aruba .ba Bosnia-Herzegovina .be Belgium .bg Bulgaria .bh Bahrain .bm Bermuda .bn Brunei Darussalam .bo Bolivia .br Brazil .bs Bahamas .bw Botswana .by Belarus .bz Belize .ca Canada .ch Switzerland .ci Cote D'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) .cl Chile .cn China .co Colombia .cr Costa Rica .cu Cuba .cy Cyprus .cz Czech Republic .de Germany .dk Denmark .dm Dominica .do Dominican Republic .ec Ecuador .ee Estonia .eg Egypt .es Spain .et Ethiopia .fi Finland .fj Fiji .fm Micronesia .fo Faroe Islands .fr France .gb Great Britain .ge Georgia .gl Greenland .gr Greece .gt Guatemala .gu Guam .gy Guyana .hk Hong Kong .hn Honduras .hr Croatia .hu Hungary .id Indonesia .ie Ireland .il Israel .in India .ir Iran .is Iceland .it Italy .jm Jamaica .jo Jordan .jp Japan .ke Kenya .kg Kyrgyzstan .kr Korea (South) .kw Kuwait .kz Kazakhstan .lb Lebanon .lc Saint Lucia .li Liechtenstein .lk Sri Lanka .lt Lithuania .lu Luxembourg .lv Latvia .ma Morocco .mc Monaco .md Moldova .mk Macedonia .mn Mongolia .mo Macau .mt Malta .mu Mauritius .mv Maldives .mx Mexico .my Malaysia .na Namibia .nc New Caledonia (French) .ng Nigeria .ni Nicaragua .nl Netherlands .no Norway .np Nepal .nu Niue .nz New Zealand .om Oman .pa Panama .pe Peru .pf Polynesia (French) .pg Papua New Guinea .ph Philipines .pk Pakistan .pl Poland .pt Portugal .py Paraguay .qa Qatar .ro Romania .ru Russian Federation .sa Saudi Arabia .se Sweden .sg Singapore .si Slovenia .sk Slovak Republic .su USSR (former) .sv El Salvador .th Thailand .tn Tunisia .tr Turkey .tt Trinidad and Tobago .tw Taiwan .ug Uganda .uk United Kingdom .us United States .uy Uruguay .uz Uzbekistan .ve Venezuela .vi Virgin Islands (USA) .vn Vietnam .ye Yemen .yu Yugoslavia .za South Africa .zm Zambia

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